茨の道も一歩から

40代後半の田舎住まい無職。再就職先が決まるまでの茨の道を記録します。

Python入門:Tkinter事始め

はじめに

  • tkinterの使い方を調べた備忘録です。

経緯

a-simple-hello-world-program.py

import tkinter as tk

class Application(tk.Frame):
    def __init__(self, master=None):
        super().__init__(master)
        self.master = master
        self.pack()
        self.create_widgets()

    def create_widgets(self):
        self.hi_there = tk.Button(self)
        self.hi_there["text"] = "Hello World\n(click me)"
        self.hi_there["command"] = self.say_hi
        self.hi_there.pack(side="top")

        self.quit = tk.Button(self, text="QUIT", fg="red",
                              command=self.master.destroy)
        self.quit.pack(side="bottom")

    def say_hi(self):
        print("hi there, everyone!")

root = tk.Tk()
app = Application(master=root)
app.mainloop()

環境

  • Windows10
  • python3.8.0

最初の一歩

  • ウィンドウが開くだけの最小プログラム

main.py

import tkinter as tk

root = tk.Tk()
root.mainloop()

実行結果

tk1.png

疑問に思った点

Q. 何故 root なのでしょうか?

_root()

import tkinter as tk

root = tk.Tk()
print(root._root()) # .(ドット)が表示される
print(type(root.master), type(root)) # Class: NoneType, tkinter.Tk

Q. tk.Tk() は必要なのでしょうか?

Hello World!?

  • ウィンドウのタイトルを変更

main.py

import tkinter as tk

root = tk.Tk()
root.title('Hello World!')
root.mainloop()

実行結果

tk2.png

Hello World!

  • ウィンドウのサイズを変更

main.py

import tkinter as tk

root = tk.Tk()
root.title('Hello World!')
root.geometry('400x200')
root.mainloop()

実行結果

tk3.png

tkinter.Frameを継承したクラスでアプリを生成

  • ラベルを第一引数を変えて生成
  • self.master
  • self
  • 引数なし

App.py

import tkinter as tk

class App(tk.Frame):
    def __init__(self, title="tk", *, width="300", height="200"):
        super().__init__()
        self.master.title(title)
        self.master.geometry(f'{width}x{height}')
        self.master.maxsize(self.master.winfo_screenwidth()-100, self.master.winfo_screenheight()-100)
        self.create_widgets()
        self.pack()
    
    def create_widgets(self):
        self.l1 = tk.Label(self.master, text='Hello World1!', fg='red', bg='pink') # .!label
        self.l1.pack()

        self.l2 = tk.Label(self, text='Hello World2!', fg='green', bg='greenyellow') # .!app.!label
        self.l2.pack()

        self.l3 = tk.Label(text='Hello World3!', fg='blue', bg='aqua') # .!label2
        self.l3.pack()


if __name__ == '__main__':
    myapp = App("Hello WM")
    myapp.mainloop()

実行結果

tk4.png

なるほどな点

  • ラベルの生える場所が変わっている
  • Tkクラス=土台,App(Frame)クラス=枠
  • こんな感じのイメージ

tk5.png

まとめ

  • tk.Tk()は明示的に書かなくても良かった。
  • 公式のチュートリアルが、何故rootを渡すのか意図はわからず仕舞い。

App.py

import tkinter as tk

class App(tk.Frame):
    def __init__(self, title='tk', *, width='300', height='200'):
        super().__init__()
        self.master.title(title)
        self.master.geometry(f'{width}x{height}')
        self.master.maxsize(self.master.winfo_screenwidth()-100, self.master.winfo_screenheight()-100)
        self.create_widgets()
        self.pack()
    
    def create_widgets(self):
        self.l1 = tk.Label(self.master, text='Hello World1!', fg='red', bg='pink')
        self.l1.pack()

        self.l2 = tk.Label(self, text='Hello World2!', fg='green', bg='greenyellow')
        self.l2.pack()

        self.l3 = tk.Label(text='Hello World3!', fg='blue', bg='aqua')
        self.l3.pack()

        self.btn1 = tk.Button(self)
        self.btn1['text'] = 'Click(hello)'
        self.btn1['command'] = self.hello
        self.btn1.pack(side='top')

        self.quit = tk.Button(self, text='Quit', fg='red', command=self.master.destroy)
        self.quit.pack(side='bottom')

    def hello(self):
        print('Hello World!')


if __name__ == '__main__':
    myapp = App("Hello WM")
    myapp.mainloop()

参考情報

tkinter

__init__.pyソースコード

**__init__.py**
import enum
import sys

import _tkinter # If this fails your Python may not be configured for Tk
TclError = _tkinter.TclError
from tkinter.constants import *
import re


wantobjects = 1

TkVersion = float(_tkinter.TK_VERSION)
TclVersion = float(_tkinter.TCL_VERSION)

READABLE = _tkinter.READABLE
WRITABLE = _tkinter.WRITABLE
EXCEPTION = _tkinter.EXCEPTION


_magic_re = re.compile(r'([\\{}])')
_space_re = re.compile(r'([\s])', re.ASCII)


def _join(value):
    return ' '.join(map(_stringify, value))


def _stringify(value):
    if isinstance(value, (list, tuple)):
        if len(value) == 1:
            value = _stringify(value[0])
            if _magic_re.search(value):
                value = '{%s}' % value
        else:
            value = '{%s}' % _join(value)
    else:
        value = str(value)
        if not value:
            value = '{}'
        elif _magic_re.search(value):
            # add '\' before special characters and spaces
            value = _magic_re.sub(r'\\\1', value)
            value = value.replace('\n', r'\n')
            value = _space_re.sub(r'\\\1', value)
            if value[0] == '"':
                value = '\\' + value
        elif value[0] == '"' or _space_re.search(value):
            value = '{%s}' % value
    return value


def _flatten(seq):
    res = ()
    for item in seq:
        if isinstance(item, (tuple, list)):
            res = res + _flatten(item)
        elif item is not None:
            res = res + (item,)
    return res


try: _flatten = _tkinter._flatten
except AttributeError: pass


def _cnfmerge(cnfs):
    if isinstance(cnfs, dict):
        return cnfs
    elif isinstance(cnfs, (type(None), str)):
        return cnfs
    else:
        cnf = {}
        for c in _flatten(cnfs):
            try:
                cnf.update(c)
            except (AttributeError, TypeError) as msg:
                print("_cnfmerge: fallback due to:", msg)
                for k, v in c.items():
                    cnf[k] = v
        return cnf


try: _cnfmerge = _tkinter._cnfmerge
except AttributeError: pass


def _splitdict(tk, v, cut_minus=True, conv=None):
    t = tk.splitlist(v)
    if len(t) % 2:
        raise RuntimeError('Tcl list representing a dict is expected '
                           'to contain an even number of elements')
    it = iter(t)
    dict = {}
    for key, value in zip(it, it):
        key = str(key)
        if cut_minus and key[0] == '-':
            key = key[1:]
        if conv:
            value = conv(value)
        dict[key] = value
    return dict


class EventType(str, enum.Enum):
    KeyPress = '2'
    Key = KeyPress,
    KeyRelease = '3'
    ButtonPress = '4'
    Button = ButtonPress,
    ButtonRelease = '5'
    Motion = '6'
    Enter = '7'
    Leave = '8'
    FocusIn = '9'
    FocusOut = '10'
    Keymap = '11'           # undocumented
    Expose = '12'
    GraphicsExpose = '13'   # undocumented
    NoExpose = '14'         # undocumented
    Visibility = '15'
    Create = '16'
    Destroy = '17'
    Unmap = '18'
    Map = '19'
    MapRequest = '20'
    Reparent = '21'
    Configure = '22'
    ConfigureRequest = '23'
    Gravity = '24'
    ResizeRequest = '25'
    Circulate = '26'
    CirculateRequest = '27'
    Property = '28'
    SelectionClear = '29'   # undocumented
    SelectionRequest = '30' # undocumented
    Selection = '31'        # undocumented
    Colormap = '32'
    ClientMessage = '33'    # undocumented
    Mapping = '34'          # undocumented
    VirtualEvent = '35',    # undocumented
    Activate = '36',
    Deactivate = '37',
    MouseWheel = '38',

    def __str__(self):
        return self.name


class Event:
    def __repr__(self):
        attrs = {k: v for k, v in self.__dict__.items() if v != '??'}
        if not self.char:
            del attrs['char']
        elif self.char != '??':
            attrs['char'] = repr(self.char)
        if not getattr(self, 'send_event', True):
            del attrs['send_event']
        if self.state == 0:
            del attrs['state']
        elif isinstance(self.state, int):
            state = self.state
            mods = ('Shift', 'Lock', 'Control',
                    'Mod1', 'Mod2', 'Mod3', 'Mod4', 'Mod5',
                    'Button1', 'Button2', 'Button3', 'Button4', 'Button5')
            s = []
            for i, n in enumerate(mods):
                if state & (1 << i):
                    s.append(n)
            state = state & ~((1<< len(mods)) - 1)
            if state or not s:
                s.append(hex(state))
            attrs['state'] = '|'.join(s)
        if self.delta == 0:
            del attrs['delta']
        keys = ('send_event',
                'state', 'keysym', 'keycode', 'char',
                'num', 'delta', 'focus',
                'x', 'y', 'width', 'height')
        return '<%s event%s>' % (
            self.type,
            ''.join(' %s=%s' % (k, attrs[k]) for k in keys if k in attrs)
        )


_support_default_root = 1
_default_root = None


def NoDefaultRoot():
    global _support_default_root
    _support_default_root = 0
    global _default_root
    _default_root = None
    del _default_root


def _tkerror(err):
    pass


def _exit(code=0):
    try:
        code = int(code)
    except ValueError:
        pass
    raise SystemExit(code)


_varnum = 0


class Variable:
    _default = ""
    _tk = None
    _tclCommands = None

    def __init__(self, master=None, value=None, name=None):
        if name is not None and not isinstance(name, str):
            raise TypeError("name must be a string")
        global _varnum
        if not master:
            master = _default_root
        self._root = master._root()
        self._tk = master.tk
        if name:
            self._name = name
        else:
            self._name = 'PY_VAR' + repr(_varnum)
            _varnum += 1
        if value is not None:
            self.initialize(value)
        elif not self._tk.getboolean(self._tk.call("info", "exists", self._name)):
            self.initialize(self._default)

    def __del__(self):
        if self._tk is None:
            return
        if self._tk.getboolean(self._tk.call("info", "exists", self._name)):
            self._tk.globalunsetvar(self._name)
        if self._tclCommands is not None:
            for name in self._tclCommands:
                #print '- Tkinter: deleted command', name
                self._tk.deletecommand(name)
            self._tclCommands = None

    def __str__(self):
        return self._name

    def set(self, value):
        return self._tk.globalsetvar(self._name, value)

    initialize = set

    def get(self):
        """Return value of variable."""
        return self._tk.globalgetvar(self._name)

    def _register(self, callback):
        f = CallWrapper(callback, None, self._root).__call__
        cbname = repr(id(f))
        try:
            callback = callback.__func__
        except AttributeError:
            pass
        try:
            cbname = cbname + callback.__name__
        except AttributeError:
            pass
        self._tk.createcommand(cbname, f)
        if self._tclCommands is None:
            self._tclCommands = []
        self._tclCommands.append(cbname)
        return cbname

    def trace_add(self, mode, callback):
        cbname = self._register(callback)
        self._tk.call('trace', 'add', 'variable',
                      self._name, mode, (cbname,))
        return cbname

    def trace_remove(self, mode, cbname):
        self._tk.call('trace', 'remove', 'variable',
                      self._name, mode, cbname)
        for m, ca in self.trace_info():
            if self._tk.splitlist(ca)[0] == cbname:
                break
        else:
            self._tk.deletecommand(cbname)
            try:
                self._tclCommands.remove(cbname)
            except ValueError:
                pass

    def trace_info(self):
        splitlist = self._tk.splitlist
        return [(splitlist(k), v) for k, v in map(splitlist,
            splitlist(self._tk.call('trace', 'info', 'variable', self._name)))]

    def trace_variable(self, mode, callback):
        cbname = self._register(callback)
        self._tk.call("trace", "variable", self._name, mode, cbname)
        return cbname

    trace = trace_variable

    def trace_vdelete(self, mode, cbname):
        self._tk.call("trace", "vdelete", self._name, mode, cbname)
        cbname = self._tk.splitlist(cbname)[0]
        for m, ca in self.trace_info():
            if self._tk.splitlist(ca)[0] == cbname:
                break
        else:
            self._tk.deletecommand(cbname)
            try:
                self._tclCommands.remove(cbname)
            except ValueError:
                pass

    def trace_vinfo(self):
        return [self._tk.splitlist(x) for x in self._tk.splitlist(
            self._tk.call("trace", "vinfo", self._name))]

    def __eq__(self, other):
        return self.__class__.__name__ == other.__class__.__name__ \
            and self._name == other._name


class StringVar(Variable):
    _default = ""

    def __init__(self, master=None, value=None, name=None):
        Variable.__init__(self, master, value, name)

    def get(self):
        value = self._tk.globalgetvar(self._name)
        if isinstance(value, str):
            return value
        return str(value)


class IntVar(Variable):
    _default = 0

    def __init__(self, master=None, value=None, name=None):
        Variable.__init__(self, master, value, name)

    def get(self):
        value = self._tk.globalgetvar(self._name)
        try:
            return self._tk.getint(value)
        except (TypeError, TclError):
            return int(self._tk.getdouble(value))


class DoubleVar(Variable):
    _default = 0.0

    def __init__(self, master=None, value=None, name=None):
        Variable.__init__(self, master, value, name)

    def get(self):
        return self._tk.getdouble(self._tk.globalgetvar(self._name))


class BooleanVar(Variable):
    _default = False

    def __init__(self, master=None, value=None, name=None):
        Variable.__init__(self, master, value, name)

    def set(self, value):
        return self._tk.globalsetvar(self._name, self._tk.getboolean(value))

    initialize = set

    def get(self):
        try:
            return self._tk.getboolean(self._tk.globalgetvar(self._name))
        except TclError:
            raise ValueError("invalid literal for getboolean()")


def mainloop(n=0):
    _default_root.tk.mainloop(n)


getint = int

getdouble = float


def getboolean(s):
    try:
        return _default_root.tk.getboolean(s)
    except TclError:
        raise ValueError("invalid literal for getboolean()")


class Misc:
    _last_child_ids = None

    _tclCommands = None

    def destroy(self):
        if self._tclCommands is not None:
            for name in self._tclCommands:
                #print '- Tkinter: deleted command', name
                self.tk.deletecommand(name)
            self._tclCommands = None

    def deletecommand(self, name):
        self.tk.deletecommand(name)
        try:
            self._tclCommands.remove(name)
        except ValueError:
            pass

    def tk_strictMotif(self, boolean=None):
        return self.tk.getboolean(self.tk.call(
            'set', 'tk_strictMotif', boolean))

    def tk_bisque(self):
        self.tk.call('tk_bisque')

    def tk_setPalette(self, *args, **kw):
        self.tk.call(('tk_setPalette',)
              + _flatten(args) + _flatten(list(kw.items())))

    def wait_variable(self, name='PY_VAR'):
        self.tk.call('tkwait', 'variable', name)
    waitvar = wait_variable # XXX b/w compat

    def wait_window(self, window=None):
        if window is None:
            window = self
        self.tk.call('tkwait', 'window', window._w)

    def wait_visibility(self, window=None):
        if window is None:
            window = self
        self.tk.call('tkwait', 'visibility', window._w)

    def setvar(self, name='PY_VAR', value='1'):
        self.tk.setvar(name, value)

    def getvar(self, name='PY_VAR'):
        return self.tk.getvar(name)

    def getint(self, s):
        try:
            return self.tk.getint(s)
        except TclError as exc:
            raise ValueError(str(exc))

    def getdouble(self, s):
        try:
            return self.tk.getdouble(s)
        except TclError as exc:
            raise ValueError(str(exc))

    def getboolean(self, s):
        try:
            return self.tk.getboolean(s)
        except TclError:
            raise ValueError("invalid literal for getboolean()")

    def focus_set(self):
        self.tk.call('focus', self._w)
    focus = focus_set # XXX b/w compat?

    def focus_force(self):
        self.tk.call('focus', '-force', self._w)

    def focus_get(self):
        name = self.tk.call('focus')
        if name == 'none' or not name: return None
        return self._nametowidget(name)

    def focus_displayof(self):
        name = self.tk.call('focus', '-displayof', self._w)
        if name == 'none' or not name: return None
        return self._nametowidget(name)

    def focus_lastfor(self):
        name = self.tk.call('focus', '-lastfor', self._w)
        if name == 'none' or not name: return None
        return self._nametowidget(name)

    def tk_focusFollowsMouse(self):
        self.tk.call('tk_focusFollowsMouse')

    def tk_focusNext(self):
        name = self.tk.call('tk_focusNext', self._w)
        if not name: return None
        return self._nametowidget(name)

    def tk_focusPrev(self):
        name = self.tk.call('tk_focusPrev', self._w)
        if not name: return None
        return self._nametowidget(name)

    def after(self, ms, func=None, *args):
        if not func:
            self.tk.call('after', ms)
            return None
        else:
            def callit():
                try:
                    func(*args)
                finally:
                    try:
                        self.deletecommand(name)
                    except TclError:
                        pass
            callit.__name__ = func.__name__
            name = self._register(callit)
            return self.tk.call('after', ms, name)

    def after_idle(self, func, *args):
        return self.after('idle', func, *args)

    def after_cancel(self, id):
        if not id:
            raise ValueError('id must be a valid identifier returned from '
                             'after or after_idle')
        try:
            data = self.tk.call('after', 'info', id)
            script = self.tk.splitlist(data)[0]
            self.deletecommand(script)
        except TclError:
            pass
        self.tk.call('after', 'cancel', id)

    def bell(self, displayof=0):
        """Ring a display's bell."""
        self.tk.call(('bell',) + self._displayof(displayof))

    # Clipboard handling:
    def clipboard_get(self, **kw):
        if 'type' not in kw and self._windowingsystem == 'x11':
            try:
                kw['type'] = 'UTF8_STRING'
                return self.tk.call(('clipboard', 'get') + self._options(kw))
            except TclError:
                del kw['type']
        return self.tk.call(('clipboard', 'get') + self._options(kw))

    def clipboard_clear(self, **kw):
        if 'displayof' not in kw: kw['displayof'] = self._w
        self.tk.call(('clipboard', 'clear') + self._options(kw))

    def clipboard_append(self, string, **kw):
        if 'displayof' not in kw: kw['displayof'] = self._w
        self.tk.call(('clipboard', 'append') + self._options(kw)
              + ('--', string))
    # XXX grab current w/o window argument

    def grab_current(self):
        name = self.tk.call('grab', 'current', self._w)
        if not name: return None
        return self._nametowidget(name)

    def grab_release(self):
        self.tk.call('grab', 'release', self._w)

    def grab_set(self):
        self.tk.call('grab', 'set', self._w)

    def grab_set_global(self):
        self.tk.call('grab', 'set', '-global', self._w)

    def grab_status(self):
        status = self.tk.call('grab', 'status', self._w)
        if status == 'none': status = None
        return status

    def option_add(self, pattern, value, priority = None):
        self.tk.call('option', 'add', pattern, value, priority)

    def option_clear(self):
        self.tk.call('option', 'clear')

    def option_get(self, name, className):
        return self.tk.call('option', 'get', self._w, name, className)

    def option_readfile(self, fileName, priority = None):
        self.tk.call('option', 'readfile', fileName, priority)

    def selection_clear(self, **kw):
        if 'displayof' not in kw: kw['displayof'] = self._w
        self.tk.call(('selection', 'clear') + self._options(kw))

    def selection_get(self, **kw):
        if 'displayof' not in kw: kw['displayof'] = self._w
        if 'type' not in kw and self._windowingsystem == 'x11':
            try:
                kw['type'] = 'UTF8_STRING'
                return self.tk.call(('selection', 'get') + self._options(kw))
            except TclError:
                del kw['type']
        return self.tk.call(('selection', 'get') + self._options(kw))

    def selection_handle(self, command, **kw):
        name = self._register(command)
        self.tk.call(('selection', 'handle') + self._options(kw)
              + (self._w, name))

    def selection_own(self, **kw):
        self.tk.call(('selection', 'own') +
                 self._options(kw) + (self._w,))

    def selection_own_get(self, **kw):
        if 'displayof' not in kw: kw['displayof'] = self._w
        name = self.tk.call(('selection', 'own') + self._options(kw))
        if not name: return None
        return self._nametowidget(name)

    def send(self, interp, cmd, *args):
        return self.tk.call(('send', interp, cmd) + args)

    def lower(self, belowThis=None):
        self.tk.call('lower', self._w, belowThis)

    def tkraise(self, aboveThis=None):
        self.tk.call('raise', self._w, aboveThis)

    lift = tkraise

    def winfo_atom(self, name, displayof=0):
        args = ('winfo', 'atom') + self._displayof(displayof) + (name,)
        return self.tk.getint(self.tk.call(args))

    def winfo_atomname(self, id, displayof=0):
        args = ('winfo', 'atomname') \
               + self._displayof(displayof) + (id,)
        return self.tk.call(args)

    def winfo_cells(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'cells', self._w))

    def winfo_children(self):
        result = []
        for child in self.tk.splitlist(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'children', self._w)):
            try:
                # Tcl sometimes returns extra windows, e.g. for
                # menus; those need to be skipped
                result.append(self._nametowidget(child))
            except KeyError:
                pass
        return result

    def winfo_class(self):
        return self.tk.call('winfo', 'class', self._w)

    def winfo_colormapfull(self):
        return self.tk.getboolean(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'colormapfull', self._w))

    def winfo_containing(self, rootX, rootY, displayof=0):
        args = ('winfo', 'containing') \
               + self._displayof(displayof) + (rootX, rootY)
        name = self.tk.call(args)
        if not name: return None
        return self._nametowidget(name)

    def winfo_depth(self):
        return self.tk.getint(self.tk.call('winfo', 'depth', self._w))

    def winfo_exists(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'exists', self._w))

    def winfo_fpixels(self, number):
        return self.tk.getdouble(self.tk.call(
            'winfo', 'fpixels', self._w, number))

    def winfo_geometry(self):
        return self.tk.call('winfo', 'geometry', self._w)

    def winfo_height(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'height', self._w))

    def winfo_id(self):
        return int(self.tk.call('winfo', 'id', self._w), 0)

    def winfo_interps(self, displayof=0):
        args = ('winfo', 'interps') + self._displayof(displayof)
        return self.tk.splitlist(self.tk.call(args))

    def winfo_ismapped(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'ismapped', self._w))

    def winfo_manager(self):
        return self.tk.call('winfo', 'manager', self._w)

    def winfo_name(self):
        return self.tk.call('winfo', 'name', self._w)

    def winfo_parent(self):
        return self.tk.call('winfo', 'parent', self._w)

    def winfo_pathname(self, id, displayof=0):
        args = ('winfo', 'pathname') \
               + self._displayof(displayof) + (id,)
        return self.tk.call(args)

    def winfo_pixels(self, number):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'pixels', self._w, number))

    def winfo_pointerx(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'pointerx', self._w))

    def winfo_pointerxy(self):
        return self._getints(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'pointerxy', self._w))

    def winfo_pointery(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'pointery', self._w))

    def winfo_reqheight(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'reqheight', self._w))

    def winfo_reqwidth(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'reqwidth', self._w))

    def winfo_rgb(self, color):
        return self._getints(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'rgb', self._w, color))

    def winfo_rootx(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'rootx', self._w))

    def winfo_rooty(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'rooty', self._w))

    def winfo_screen(self):
        return self.tk.call('winfo', 'screen', self._w)

    def winfo_screencells(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'screencells', self._w))

    def winfo_screendepth(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'screendepth', self._w))

    def winfo_screenheight(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'screenheight', self._w))

    def winfo_screenmmheight(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'screenmmheight', self._w))

    def winfo_screenmmwidth(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'screenmmwidth', self._w))

    def winfo_screenvisual(self):
        return self.tk.call('winfo', 'screenvisual', self._w)

    def winfo_screenwidth(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'screenwidth', self._w))

    def winfo_server(self):
        return self.tk.call('winfo', 'server', self._w)

    def winfo_toplevel(self):
        return self._nametowidget(self.tk.call(
            'winfo', 'toplevel', self._w))

    def winfo_viewable(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'viewable', self._w))

    def winfo_visual(self):
        return self.tk.call('winfo', 'visual', self._w)

    def winfo_visualid(self):
        return self.tk.call('winfo', 'visualid', self._w)

    def winfo_visualsavailable(self, includeids=False):
        data = self.tk.call('winfo', 'visualsavailable', self._w,
                            'includeids' if includeids else None)
        data = [self.tk.splitlist(x) for x in self.tk.splitlist(data)]
        return [self.__winfo_parseitem(x) for x in data]

    def __winfo_parseitem(self, t):
        return t[:1] + tuple(map(self.__winfo_getint, t[1:]))

    def __winfo_getint(self, x):
        return int(x, 0)

    def winfo_vrootheight(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'vrootheight', self._w))

    def winfo_vrootwidth(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'vrootwidth', self._w))

    def winfo_vrootx(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'vrootx', self._w))

    def winfo_vrooty(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'vrooty', self._w))

    def winfo_width(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'width', self._w))

    def winfo_x(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'x', self._w))

    def winfo_y(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('winfo', 'y', self._w))

    def update(self):
        self.tk.call('update')

    def update_idletasks(self):
        self.tk.call('update', 'idletasks')

    def bindtags(self, tagList=None):
        if tagList is None:
            return self.tk.splitlist(
                self.tk.call('bindtags', self._w))
        else:
            self.tk.call('bindtags', self._w, tagList)

    def _bind(self, what, sequence, func, add, needcleanup=1):
        if isinstance(func, str):
            self.tk.call(what + (sequence, func))
        elif func:
            funcid = self._register(func, self._substitute,
                        needcleanup)
            cmd = ('%sif {"[%s %s]" == "break"} break\n'
                   %
                   (add and '+' or '',
                funcid, self._subst_format_str))
            self.tk.call(what + (sequence, cmd))
            return funcid
        elif sequence:
            return self.tk.call(what + (sequence,))
        else:
            return self.tk.splitlist(self.tk.call(what))

    def bind(self, sequence=None, func=None, add=None):
        return self._bind(('bind', self._w), sequence, func, add)

    def unbind(self, sequence, funcid=None):
        self.tk.call('bind', self._w, sequence, '')
        if funcid:
            self.deletecommand(funcid)

    def bind_all(self, sequence=None, func=None, add=None):
        return self._bind(('bind', 'all'), sequence, func, add, 0)

    def unbind_all(self, sequence):
        self.tk.call('bind', 'all' , sequence, '')

    def bind_class(self, className, sequence=None, func=None, add=None):
        return self._bind(('bind', className), sequence, func, add, 0)

    def unbind_class(self, className, sequence):
        self.tk.call('bind', className , sequence, '')

    def mainloop(self, n=0):
        self.tk.mainloop(n)

    def quit(self):
        self.tk.quit()

    def _getints(self, string):
        if string:
            return tuple(map(self.tk.getint, self.tk.splitlist(string)))

    def _getdoubles(self, string):
        if string:
            return tuple(map(self.tk.getdouble, self.tk.splitlist(string)))

    def _getboolean(self, string):
        if string:
            return self.tk.getboolean(string)

    def _displayof(self, displayof):
        if displayof:
            return ('-displayof', displayof)
        if displayof is None:
            return ('-displayof', self._w)
        return ()

    @property
    def _windowingsystem(self):
        try:
            return self._root()._windowingsystem_cached
        except AttributeError:
            ws = self._root()._windowingsystem_cached = \
                        self.tk.call('tk', 'windowingsystem')
            return ws

    def _options(self, cnf, kw = None):
        if kw:
            cnf = _cnfmerge((cnf, kw))
        else:
            cnf = _cnfmerge(cnf)
        res = ()
        for k, v in cnf.items():
            if v is not None:
                if k[-1] == '_': k = k[:-1]
                if callable(v):
                    v = self._register(v)
                elif isinstance(v, (tuple, list)):
                    nv = []
                    for item in v:
                        if isinstance(item, int):
                            nv.append(str(item))
                        elif isinstance(item, str):
                            nv.append(_stringify(item))
                        else:
                            break
                    else:
                        v = ' '.join(nv)
                res = res + ('-'+k, v)
        return res

    def nametowidget(self, name):
        name = str(name).split('.')
        w = self

        if not name[0]:
            w = w._root()
            name = name[1:]

        for n in name:
            if not n:
                break
            w = w.children[n]

        return w

    _nametowidget = nametowidget

    def _register(self, func, subst=None, needcleanup=1):
        f = CallWrapper(func, subst, self).__call__
        name = repr(id(f))
        try:
            func = func.__func__
        except AttributeError:
            pass
        try:
            name = name + func.__name__
        except AttributeError:
            pass
        self.tk.createcommand(name, f)
        if needcleanup:
            if self._tclCommands is None:
                self._tclCommands = []
            self._tclCommands.append(name)
        return name

    register = _register

    def _root(self):
        w = self
        while w.master: w = w.master
        return w
    _subst_format = ('%#', '%b', '%f', '%h', '%k',
             '%s', '%t', '%w', '%x', '%y',
             '%A', '%E', '%K', '%N', '%W', '%T', '%X', '%Y', '%D')
    _subst_format_str = " ".join(_subst_format)

    def _substitute(self, *args):
        if len(args) != len(self._subst_format): return args
        getboolean = self.tk.getboolean

        getint = self.tk.getint
        def getint_event(s):
            try:
                return getint(s)
            except (ValueError, TclError):
                return s

        nsign, b, f, h, k, s, t, w, x, y, A, E, K, N, W, T, X, Y, D = args
        e = Event()
        e.serial = getint(nsign)
        e.num = getint_event(b)
        try: e.focus = getboolean(f)
        except TclError: pass
        e.height = getint_event(h)
        e.keycode = getint_event(k)
        e.state = getint_event(s)
        e.time = getint_event(t)
        e.width = getint_event(w)
        e.x = getint_event(x)
        e.y = getint_event(y)
        e.char = A
        try: e.send_event = getboolean(E)
        except TclError: pass
        e.keysym = K
        e.keysym_num = getint_event(N)
        try:
            e.type = EventType(T)
        except ValueError:
            e.type = T
        try:
            e.widget = self._nametowidget(W)
        except KeyError:
            e.widget = W
        e.x_root = getint_event(X)
        e.y_root = getint_event(Y)
        try:
            e.delta = getint(D)
        except (ValueError, TclError):
            e.delta = 0
        return (e,)

    def _report_exception(self):
        exc, val, tb = sys.exc_info()
        root = self._root()
        root.report_callback_exception(exc, val, tb)

    def _getconfigure(self, *args):
        cnf = {}
        for x in self.tk.splitlist(self.tk.call(*args)):
            x = self.tk.splitlist(x)
            cnf[x[0][1:]] = (x[0][1:],) + x[1:]
        return cnf

    def _getconfigure1(self, *args):
        x = self.tk.splitlist(self.tk.call(*args))
        return (x[0][1:],) + x[1:]

    def _configure(self, cmd, cnf, kw):
        if kw:
            cnf = _cnfmerge((cnf, kw))
        elif cnf:
            cnf = _cnfmerge(cnf)
        if cnf is None:
            return self._getconfigure(_flatten((self._w, cmd)))
        if isinstance(cnf, str):
            return self._getconfigure1(_flatten((self._w, cmd, '-'+cnf)))
        self.tk.call(_flatten((self._w, cmd)) + self._options(cnf))

    def configure(self, cnf=None, **kw):
        return self._configure('configure', cnf, kw)

    config = configure

    def cget(self, key):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'cget', '-' + key)

    __getitem__ = cget

    def __setitem__(self, key, value):
        self.configure({key: value})

    def keys(self):
        splitlist = self.tk.splitlist
        return [splitlist(x)[0][1:] for x in
                splitlist(self.tk.call(self._w, 'configure'))]

    def __str__(self):
        return self._w

    def __repr__(self):
        return '<%s.%s object %s>' % (
            self.__class__.__module__, self.__class__.__qualname__, self._w)

    _noarg_ = ['_noarg_']

    def pack_propagate(self, flag=_noarg_):
        if flag is Misc._noarg_:
            return self._getboolean(self.tk.call(
                'pack', 'propagate', self._w))
        else:
            self.tk.call('pack', 'propagate', self._w, flag)

    propagate = pack_propagate

    def pack_slaves(self):
        return [self._nametowidget(x) for x in
                self.tk.splitlist(
                   self.tk.call('pack', 'slaves', self._w))]

    slaves = pack_slaves

    def place_slaves(self):
        return [self._nametowidget(x) for x in
                self.tk.splitlist(
                   self.tk.call(
                       'place', 'slaves', self._w))]


    def grid_anchor(self, anchor=None): # new in Tk 8.5
        self.tk.call('grid', 'anchor', self._w, anchor)

    anchor = grid_anchor

    def grid_bbox(self, column=None, row=None, col2=None, row2=None):
        args = ('grid', 'bbox', self._w)
        if column is not None and row is not None:
            args = args + (column, row)
        if col2 is not None and row2 is not None:
            args = args + (col2, row2)
        return self._getints(self.tk.call(*args)) or None

    bbox = grid_bbox

    def _gridconvvalue(self, value):
        if isinstance(value, (str, _tkinter.Tcl_Obj)):
            try:
                svalue = str(value)
                if not svalue:
                    return None
                elif '.' in svalue:
                    return self.tk.getdouble(svalue)
                else:
                    return self.tk.getint(svalue)
            except (ValueError, TclError):
                pass
        return value

    def _grid_configure(self, command, index, cnf, kw):
        if isinstance(cnf, str) and not kw:
            if cnf[-1:] == '_':
                cnf = cnf[:-1]
            if cnf[:1] != '-':
                cnf = '-'+cnf
            options = (cnf,)
        else:
            options = self._options(cnf, kw)
        if not options:
            return _splitdict(
                self.tk,
                self.tk.call('grid', command, self._w, index),
                conv=self._gridconvvalue)
        res = self.tk.call(
                  ('grid', command, self._w, index)
                  + options)
        if len(options) == 1:
            return self._gridconvvalue(res)

    def grid_columnconfigure(self, index, cnf={}, **kw):
        return self._grid_configure('columnconfigure', index, cnf, kw)

    columnconfigure = grid_columnconfigure

    def grid_location(self, x, y):
        return self._getints(
            self.tk.call(
                'grid', 'location', self._w, x, y)) or None

    def grid_propagate(self, flag=_noarg_):
        if flag is Misc._noarg_:
            return self._getboolean(self.tk.call(
                'grid', 'propagate', self._w))
        else:
            self.tk.call('grid', 'propagate', self._w, flag)

    def grid_rowconfigure(self, index, cnf={}, **kw):
        return self._grid_configure('rowconfigure', index, cnf, kw)

    rowconfigure = grid_rowconfigure

    def grid_size(self):
        return self._getints(
            self.tk.call('grid', 'size', self._w)) or None

    size = grid_size

    def grid_slaves(self, row=None, column=None):
        args = ()
        if row is not None:
            args = args + ('-row', row)
        if column is not None:
            args = args + ('-column', column)
        return [self._nametowidget(x) for x in
                self.tk.splitlist(self.tk.call(
                   ('grid', 'slaves', self._w) + args))]


    def event_add(self, virtual, *sequences):
        args = ('event', 'add', virtual) + sequences
        self.tk.call(args)

    def event_delete(self, virtual, *sequences):
        args = ('event', 'delete', virtual) + sequences
        self.tk.call(args)

    def event_generate(self, sequence, **kw):
        args = ('event', 'generate', self._w, sequence)
        for k, v in kw.items():
            args = args + ('-%s' % k, str(v))
        self.tk.call(args)

    def event_info(self, virtual=None):
        return self.tk.splitlist(
            self.tk.call('event', 'info', virtual))


    def image_names(self):
        return self.tk.splitlist(self.tk.call('image', 'names'))

    def image_types(self):
        return self.tk.splitlist(self.tk.call('image', 'types'))


class CallWrapper:
    def __init__(self, func, subst, widget):
        self.func = func
        self.subst = subst
        self.widget = widget

    def __call__(self, *args):
        try:
            if self.subst:
                args = self.subst(*args)
            return self.func(*args)
        except SystemExit:
            raise
        except:
            self.widget._report_exception()


class XView:
    def xview(self, *args):
        res = self.tk.call(self._w, 'xview', *args)
        if not args:
            return self._getdoubles(res)

    def xview_moveto(self, fraction):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'xview', 'moveto', fraction)

    def xview_scroll(self, number, what):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'xview', 'scroll', number, what)


class YView:
    def yview(self, *args):
        res = self.tk.call(self._w, 'yview', *args)
        if not args:
            return self._getdoubles(res)

    def yview_moveto(self, fraction):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'yview', 'moveto', fraction)

    def yview_scroll(self, number, what):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'yview', 'scroll', number, what)


class Wm:
    def wm_aspect(self,
              minNumer=None, minDenom=None,
              maxNumer=None, maxDenom=None):
        return self._getints(
            self.tk.call('wm', 'aspect', self._w,
                     minNumer, minDenom,
                     maxNumer, maxDenom))

    aspect = wm_aspect

    def wm_attributes(self, *args):
        args = ('wm', 'attributes', self._w) + args
        return self.tk.call(args)

    attributes = wm_attributes

    def wm_client(self, name=None):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'client', self._w, name)

    client = wm_client

    def wm_colormapwindows(self, *wlist):
        if len(wlist) > 1:
            wlist = (wlist,) # Tk needs a list of windows here
        args = ('wm', 'colormapwindows', self._w) + wlist
        if wlist:
            self.tk.call(args)
        else:
            return [self._nametowidget(x)
                    for x in self.tk.splitlist(self.tk.call(args))]

    colormapwindows = wm_colormapwindows

    def wm_command(self, value=None):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'command', self._w, value)

    command = wm_command

    def wm_deiconify(self):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'deiconify', self._w)

    deiconify = wm_deiconify

    def wm_focusmodel(self, model=None):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'focusmodel', self._w, model)

    focusmodel = wm_focusmodel

    def wm_forget(self, window): # new in Tk 8.5
        self.tk.call('wm', 'forget', window)

    forget = wm_forget

    def wm_frame(self):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'frame', self._w)

    frame = wm_frame

    def wm_geometry(self, newGeometry=None):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'geometry', self._w, newGeometry)

    geometry = wm_geometry

    def wm_grid(self,
         baseWidth=None, baseHeight=None,
         widthInc=None, heightInc=None):
        return self._getints(self.tk.call(
            'wm', 'grid', self._w,
            baseWidth, baseHeight, widthInc, heightInc))

    grid = wm_grid

    def wm_group(self, pathName=None):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'group', self._w, pathName)

    group = wm_group

    def wm_iconbitmap(self, bitmap=None, default=None):
        if default:
            return self.tk.call('wm', 'iconbitmap', self._w, '-default', default)
        else:
            return self.tk.call('wm', 'iconbitmap', self._w, bitmap)

    iconbitmap = wm_iconbitmap

    def wm_iconify(self):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'iconify', self._w)

    iconify = wm_iconify

    def wm_iconmask(self, bitmap=None):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'iconmask', self._w, bitmap)

    iconmask = wm_iconmask

    def wm_iconname(self, newName=None):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'iconname', self._w, newName)

    iconname = wm_iconname

    def wm_iconphoto(self, default=False, *args): # new in Tk 8.5
        if default:
            self.tk.call('wm', 'iconphoto', self._w, "-default", *args)
        else:
            self.tk.call('wm', 'iconphoto', self._w, *args)

    iconphoto = wm_iconphoto

    def wm_iconposition(self, x=None, y=None):
        return self._getints(self.tk.call(
            'wm', 'iconposition', self._w, x, y))

    iconposition = wm_iconposition

    def wm_iconwindow(self, pathName=None):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'iconwindow', self._w, pathName)

    iconwindow = wm_iconwindow

    def wm_manage(self, widget): # new in Tk 8.5
        self.tk.call('wm', 'manage', widget)

    manage = wm_manage

    def wm_maxsize(self, width=None, height=None):
        return self._getints(self.tk.call(
            'wm', 'maxsize', self._w, width, height))

    maxsize = wm_maxsize

    def wm_minsize(self, width=None, height=None):
        return self._getints(self.tk.call(
            'wm', 'minsize', self._w, width, height))

    minsize = wm_minsize

    def wm_overrideredirect(self, boolean=None):
        return self._getboolean(self.tk.call(
            'wm', 'overrideredirect', self._w, boolean))

    overrideredirect = wm_overrideredirect

    def wm_positionfrom(self, who=None):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'positionfrom', self._w, who)

    positionfrom = wm_positionfrom

    def wm_protocol(self, name=None, func=None):
        if callable(func):
            command = self._register(func)
        else:
            command = func
        return self.tk.call(
            'wm', 'protocol', self._w, name, command)

    protocol = wm_protocol

    def wm_resizable(self, width=None, height=None):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'resizable', self._w, width, height)

    resizable = wm_resizable

    def wm_sizefrom(self, who=None):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'sizefrom', self._w, who)

    sizefrom = wm_sizefrom

    def wm_state(self, newstate=None):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'state', self._w, newstate)

    state = wm_state

    def wm_title(self, string=None):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'title', self._w, string)

    title = wm_title

    def wm_transient(self, master=None):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'transient', self._w, master)

    transient = wm_transient

    def wm_withdraw(self):
        return self.tk.call('wm', 'withdraw', self._w)

    withdraw = wm_withdraw


class Tk(Misc, Wm):
    _w = '.'

    def __init__(self, screenName=None, baseName=None, className='Tk',
                 useTk=1, sync=0, use=None):
        self.master = None
        self.children = {}
        self._tkloaded = 0
        self.tk = None
        if baseName is None:
            import os
            baseName = os.path.basename(sys.argv[0])
            baseName, ext = os.path.splitext(baseName)
            if ext not in ('.py', '.pyc'):
                baseName = baseName + ext
        interactive = 0
        self.tk = _tkinter.create(screenName, baseName, className, interactive, wantobjects, useTk, sync, use)
        if useTk:
            self._loadtk()
        if not sys.flags.ignore_environment:
            self.readprofile(baseName, className)

    def loadtk(self):
        if not self._tkloaded:
            self.tk.loadtk()
            self._loadtk()

    def _loadtk(self):
        self._tkloaded = 1
        global _default_root
        tk_version = self.tk.getvar('tk_version')
        if tk_version != _tkinter.TK_VERSION:
            raise RuntimeError("tk.h version (%s) doesn't match libtk.a version (%s)"
                               % (_tkinter.TK_VERSION, tk_version))
        tcl_version = str(self.tk.getvar('tcl_version'))
        if tcl_version != _tkinter.TCL_VERSION:
            raise RuntimeError("tcl.h version (%s) doesn't match libtcl.a version (%s)" \
                               % (_tkinter.TCL_VERSION, tcl_version))
        if self._tclCommands is None:
            self._tclCommands = []
        self.tk.createcommand('tkerror', _tkerror)
        self.tk.createcommand('exit', _exit)
        self._tclCommands.append('tkerror')
        self._tclCommands.append('exit')
        if _support_default_root and not _default_root:
            _default_root = self
        self.protocol("WM_DELETE_WINDOW", self.destroy)

    def destroy(self):
        for c in list(self.children.values()): c.destroy()
        self.tk.call('destroy', self._w)
        Misc.destroy(self)
        global _default_root
        if _support_default_root and _default_root is self:
            _default_root = None

    def readprofile(self, baseName, className):
        import os
        if 'HOME' in os.environ: home = os.environ['HOME']
        else: home = os.curdir
        class_tcl = os.path.join(home, '.%s.tcl' % className)
        class_py = os.path.join(home, '.%s.py' % className)
        base_tcl = os.path.join(home, '.%s.tcl' % baseName)
        base_py = os.path.join(home, '.%s.py' % baseName)
        dir = {'self': self}
        exec('from tkinter import *', dir)
        if os.path.isfile(class_tcl):
            self.tk.call('source', class_tcl)
        if os.path.isfile(class_py):
            exec(open(class_py).read(), dir)
        if os.path.isfile(base_tcl):
            self.tk.call('source', base_tcl)
        if os.path.isfile(base_py):
            exec(open(base_py).read(), dir)

    def report_callback_exception(self, exc, val, tb):
        import traceback
        print("Exception in Tkinter callback", file=sys.stderr)
        sys.last_type = exc
        sys.last_value = val
        sys.last_traceback = tb
        traceback.print_exception(exc, val, tb)

    def __getattr__(self, attr):
        return getattr(self.tk, attr)


def Tcl(screenName=None, baseName=None, className='Tk', useTk=0):
    return Tk(screenName, baseName, className, useTk)


class Pack:
    def pack_configure(self, cnf={}, **kw):
        self.tk.call(
              ('pack', 'configure', self._w)
              + self._options(cnf, kw))

    pack = configure = config = pack_configure

    def pack_forget(self):
        self.tk.call('pack', 'forget', self._w)

    forget = pack_forget

    def pack_info(self):
        d = _splitdict(self.tk, self.tk.call('pack', 'info', self._w))
        if 'in' in d:
            d['in'] = self.nametowidget(d['in'])
        return d

    info = pack_info
    propagate = pack_propagate = Misc.pack_propagate
    slaves = pack_slaves = Misc.pack_slaves


class Place:
    def place_configure(self, cnf={}, **kw):
        self.tk.call(
              ('place', 'configure', self._w)
              + self._options(cnf, kw))

    place = configure = config = place_configure

    def place_forget(self):
        self.tk.call('place', 'forget', self._w)

    forget = place_forget

    def place_info(self):
        d = _splitdict(self.tk, self.tk.call('place', 'info', self._w))
        if 'in' in d:
            d['in'] = self.nametowidget(d['in'])
        return d

    info = place_info
    slaves = place_slaves = Misc.place_slaves


class Grid:
    def grid_configure(self, cnf={}, **kw):
        self.tk.call(
              ('grid', 'configure', self._w)
              + self._options(cnf, kw))

    grid = configure = config = grid_configure
    bbox = grid_bbox = Misc.grid_bbox
    columnconfigure = grid_columnconfigure = Misc.grid_columnconfigure

    def grid_forget(self):
        self.tk.call('grid', 'forget', self._w)

    forget = grid_forget

    def grid_remove(self):
        self.tk.call('grid', 'remove', self._w)

    def grid_info(self):
        d = _splitdict(self.tk, self.tk.call('grid', 'info', self._w))
        if 'in' in d:
            d['in'] = self.nametowidget(d['in'])
        return d

    info = grid_info
    location = grid_location = Misc.grid_location
    propagate = grid_propagate = Misc.grid_propagate
    rowconfigure = grid_rowconfigure = Misc.grid_rowconfigure
    size = grid_size = Misc.grid_size
    slaves = grid_slaves = Misc.grid_slaves


class BaseWidget(Misc):
    def _setup(self, master, cnf):
        if _support_default_root:
            global _default_root
            if not master:
                if not _default_root:
                    _default_root = Tk()
                master = _default_root
        self.master = master
        self.tk = master.tk
        name = None
        if 'name' in cnf:
            name = cnf['name']
            del cnf['name']
        if not name:
            name = self.__class__.__name__.lower()
            if master._last_child_ids is None:
                master._last_child_ids = {}
            count = master._last_child_ids.get(name, 0) + 1
            master._last_child_ids[name] = count
            if count == 1:
                name = '!%s' % (name,)
            else:
                name = '!%s%d' % (name, count)
        self._name = name
        if master._w=='.':
            self._w = '.' + name
        else:
            self._w = master._w + '.' + name
        self.children = {}
        if self._name in self.master.children:
            self.master.children[self._name].destroy()
        self.master.children[self._name] = self

    def __init__(self, master, widgetName, cnf={}, kw={}, extra=()):
        if kw:
            cnf = _cnfmerge((cnf, kw))
        self.widgetName = widgetName
        BaseWidget._setup(self, master, cnf)
        if self._tclCommands is None:
            self._tclCommands = []
        classes = [(k, v) for k, v in cnf.items() if isinstance(k, type)]
        for k, v in classes:
            del cnf[k]
        self.tk.call(
            (widgetName, self._w) + extra + self._options(cnf))
        for k, v in classes:
            k.configure(self, v)

    def destroy(self):
        for c in list(self.children.values()): c.destroy()
        self.tk.call('destroy', self._w)
        if self._name in self.master.children:
            del self.master.children[self._name]
        Misc.destroy(self)

    def _do(self, name, args=()):
        return self.tk.call((self._w, name) + args)


class Widget(BaseWidget, Pack, Place, Grid):
    pass


class Toplevel(BaseWidget, Wm):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        if kw:
            cnf = _cnfmerge((cnf, kw))
        extra = ()
        for wmkey in ['screen', 'class_', 'class', 'visual',
                  'colormap']:
            if wmkey in cnf:
                val = cnf[wmkey]
                if wmkey[-1] == '_': opt = '-'+wmkey[:-1]
                else: opt = '-'+wmkey
                extra = extra + (opt, val)
                del cnf[wmkey]
        BaseWidget.__init__(self, master, 'toplevel', cnf, {}, extra)
        root = self._root()
        self.iconname(root.iconname())
        self.title(root.title())
        self.protocol("WM_DELETE_WINDOW", self.destroy)


class Button(Widget):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        Widget.__init__(self, master, 'button', cnf, kw)

    def flash(self):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'flash')

    def invoke(self):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'invoke')


class Canvas(Widget, XView, YView):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        Widget.__init__(self, master, 'canvas', cnf, kw)

    def addtag(self, *args):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'addtag') + args)

    def addtag_above(self, newtag, tagOrId):
        self.addtag(newtag, 'above', tagOrId)

    def addtag_all(self, newtag):
        self.addtag(newtag, 'all')

    def addtag_below(self, newtag, tagOrId):
        self.addtag(newtag, 'below', tagOrId)

    def addtag_closest(self, newtag, x, y, halo=None, start=None):
        self.addtag(newtag, 'closest', x, y, halo, start)

    def addtag_enclosed(self, newtag, x1, y1, x2, y2):
        self.addtag(newtag, 'enclosed', x1, y1, x2, y2)

    def addtag_overlapping(self, newtag, x1, y1, x2, y2):
        self.addtag(newtag, 'overlapping', x1, y1, x2, y2)

    def addtag_withtag(self, newtag, tagOrId):
        self.addtag(newtag, 'withtag', tagOrId)

    def bbox(self, *args):
        return self._getints(
            self.tk.call((self._w, 'bbox') + args)) or None

    def tag_unbind(self, tagOrId, sequence, funcid=None):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'bind', tagOrId, sequence, '')
        if funcid:
            self.deletecommand(funcid)

    def tag_bind(self, tagOrId, sequence=None, func=None, add=None):
        return self._bind((self._w, 'bind', tagOrId),
                  sequence, func, add)

    def canvasx(self, screenx, gridspacing=None):
        return self.tk.getdouble(self.tk.call(
            self._w, 'canvasx', screenx, gridspacing))

    def canvasy(self, screeny, gridspacing=None):
        return self.tk.getdouble(self.tk.call(
            self._w, 'canvasy', screeny, gridspacing))

    def coords(self, *args):
        return [self.tk.getdouble(x) for x in
                           self.tk.splitlist(
                   self.tk.call((self._w, 'coords') + args))]

    def _create(self, itemType, args, kw): # Args: (val, val, ..., cnf={})
        args = _flatten(args)
        cnf = args[-1]
        if isinstance(cnf, (dict, tuple)):
            args = args[:-1]
        else:
            cnf = {}
        return self.tk.getint(self.tk.call(
            self._w, 'create', itemType,
            *(args + self._options(cnf, kw))))

    def create_arc(self, *args, **kw):
        return self._create('arc', args, kw)

    def create_bitmap(self, *args, **kw):
        return self._create('bitmap', args, kw)

    def create_image(self, *args, **kw):
        return self._create('image', args, kw)

    def create_line(self, *args, **kw):
        return self._create('line', args, kw)

    def create_oval(self, *args, **kw):
        return self._create('oval', args, kw)

    def create_polygon(self, *args, **kw):
        return self._create('polygon', args, kw)

    def create_rectangle(self, *args, **kw):
        return self._create('rectangle', args, kw)

    def create_text(self, *args, **kw):
        return self._create('text', args, kw)

    def create_window(self, *args, **kw):
        return self._create('window', args, kw)

    def dchars(self, *args):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'dchars') + args)

    def delete(self, *args):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'delete') + args)

    def dtag(self, *args):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'dtag') + args)

    def find(self, *args):
        return self._getints(
            self.tk.call((self._w, 'find') + args)) or ()

    def find_above(self, tagOrId):
        return self.find('above', tagOrId)

    def find_all(self):
        return self.find('all')

    def find_below(self, tagOrId):
        return self.find('below', tagOrId)

    def find_closest(self, x, y, halo=None, start=None):
        return self.find('closest', x, y, halo, start)

    def find_enclosed(self, x1, y1, x2, y2):
        return self.find('enclosed', x1, y1, x2, y2)

    def find_overlapping(self, x1, y1, x2, y2):
        return self.find('overlapping', x1, y1, x2, y2)

    def find_withtag(self, tagOrId):
        return self.find('withtag', tagOrId)

    def focus(self, *args):
        return self.tk.call((self._w, 'focus') + args)

    def gettags(self, *args):
        return self.tk.splitlist(
            self.tk.call((self._w, 'gettags') + args))

    def icursor(self, *args):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'icursor') + args)

    def index(self, *args):
        return self.tk.getint(self.tk.call((self._w, 'index') + args))

    def insert(self, *args):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'insert') + args)

    def itemcget(self, tagOrId, option):
        return self.tk.call(
            (self._w, 'itemcget') + (tagOrId, '-'+option))

    def itemconfigure(self, tagOrId, cnf=None, **kw):
        return self._configure(('itemconfigure', tagOrId), cnf, kw)

    itemconfig = itemconfigure

    def tag_lower(self, *args):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'lower') + args)

    lower = tag_lower

    def move(self, *args):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'move') + args)

    def moveto(self, tagOrId, x='', y=''):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'moveto', tagOrId, x, y)

    def postscript(self, cnf={}, **kw):
        return self.tk.call((self._w, 'postscript') +
                    self._options(cnf, kw))

    def tag_raise(self, *args):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'raise') + args)

    lift = tkraise = tag_raise

    def scale(self, *args):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'scale') + args)

    def scan_mark(self, x, y):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'scan', 'mark', x, y)

    def scan_dragto(self, x, y, gain=10):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'scan', 'dragto', x, y, gain)

    def select_adjust(self, tagOrId, index):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'select', 'adjust', tagOrId, index)

    def select_clear(self):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'select', 'clear')

    def select_from(self, tagOrId, index):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'select', 'from', tagOrId, index)

    def select_item(self):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'select', 'item') or None

    def select_to(self, tagOrId, index):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'select', 'to', tagOrId, index)

    def type(self, tagOrId):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'type', tagOrId) or None


class Checkbutton(Widget):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        Widget.__init__(self, master, 'checkbutton', cnf, kw)

    def deselect(self):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'deselect')

    def flash(self):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'flash')

    def invoke(self):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'invoke')

    def select(self):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'select')

    def toggle(self):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'toggle')


class Entry(Widget, XView):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        Widget.__init__(self, master, 'entry', cnf, kw)

    def delete(self, first, last=None):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'delete', first, last)

    def get(self):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'get')

    def icursor(self, index):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'icursor', index)

    def index(self, index):
        return self.tk.getint(self.tk.call(
            self._w, 'index', index))

    def insert(self, index, string):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'insert', index, string)

    def scan_mark(self, x):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'scan', 'mark', x)

    def scan_dragto(self, x):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'scan', 'dragto', x)

    def selection_adjust(self, index):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'selection', 'adjust', index)

    select_adjust = selection_adjust

    def selection_clear(self):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'selection', 'clear')

    select_clear = selection_clear

    def selection_from(self, index):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'selection', 'from', index)

    select_from = selection_from

    def selection_present(self):
        return self.tk.getboolean(
            self.tk.call(self._w, 'selection', 'present'))

    select_present = selection_present

    def selection_range(self, start, end):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'selection', 'range', start, end)

    select_range = selection_range

    def selection_to(self, index):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'selection', 'to', index)

    select_to = selection_to


class Frame(Widget):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        cnf = _cnfmerge((cnf, kw))
        extra = ()
        if 'class_' in cnf:
            extra = ('-class', cnf['class_'])
            del cnf['class_']
        elif 'class' in cnf:
            extra = ('-class', cnf['class'])
            del cnf['class']
        Widget.__init__(self, master, 'frame', cnf, {}, extra)


class Label(Widget):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        Widget.__init__(self, master, 'label', cnf, kw)


class Listbox(Widget, XView, YView):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        Widget.__init__(self, master, 'listbox', cnf, kw)

    def activate(self, index):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'activate', index)

    def bbox(self, index):
        return self._getints(self.tk.call(self._w, 'bbox', index)) or None

    def curselection(self):
        return self._getints(self.tk.call(self._w, 'curselection')) or ()

    def delete(self, first, last=None):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'delete', first, last)

    def get(self, first, last=None):
        if last is not None:
            return self.tk.splitlist(self.tk.call(
                self._w, 'get', first, last))
        else:
            return self.tk.call(self._w, 'get', first)

    def index(self, index):
        i = self.tk.call(self._w, 'index', index)
        if i == 'none': return None
        return self.tk.getint(i)

    def insert(self, index, *elements):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'insert', index) + elements)

    def nearest(self, y):
        return self.tk.getint(self.tk.call(
            self._w, 'nearest', y))

    def scan_mark(self, x, y):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'scan', 'mark', x, y)

    def scan_dragto(self, x, y):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'scan', 'dragto', x, y)

    def see(self, index):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'see', index)

    def selection_anchor(self, index):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'selection', 'anchor', index)

    select_anchor = selection_anchor

    def selection_clear(self, first, last=None):
        self.tk.call(self._w,
                 'selection', 'clear', first, last)

    select_clear = selection_clear

    def selection_includes(self, index):
        return self.tk.getboolean(self.tk.call(
            self._w, 'selection', 'includes', index))

    select_includes = selection_includes

    def selection_set(self, first, last=None):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'selection', 'set', first, last)

    select_set = selection_set

    def size(self):
        return self.tk.getint(self.tk.call(self._w, 'size'))

    def itemcget(self, index, option):
        return self.tk.call(
            (self._w, 'itemcget') + (index, '-'+option))

    def itemconfigure(self, index, cnf=None, **kw):
        return self._configure(('itemconfigure', index), cnf, kw)

    itemconfig = itemconfigure


class Menu(Widget):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        Widget.__init__(self, master, 'menu', cnf, kw)

    def tk_popup(self, x, y, entry=""):
        self.tk.call('tk_popup', self._w, x, y, entry)

    def activate(self, index):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'activate', index)

    def add(self, itemType, cnf={}, **kw):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'add', itemType) +
                 self._options(cnf, kw))

    def add_cascade(self, cnf={}, **kw):
        self.add('cascade', cnf or kw)

    def add_checkbutton(self, cnf={}, **kw):
        self.add('checkbutton', cnf or kw)

    def add_command(self, cnf={}, **kw):
        self.add('command', cnf or kw)

    def add_radiobutton(self, cnf={}, **kw):
        self.add('radiobutton', cnf or kw)

    def add_separator(self, cnf={}, **kw):
        self.add('separator', cnf or kw)

    def insert(self, index, itemType, cnf={}, **kw):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'insert', index, itemType) +
                 self._options(cnf, kw))

    def insert_cascade(self, index, cnf={}, **kw):
        self.insert(index, 'cascade', cnf or kw)

    def insert_checkbutton(self, index, cnf={}, **kw):
        self.insert(index, 'checkbutton', cnf or kw)

    def insert_command(self, index, cnf={}, **kw):
        self.insert(index, 'command', cnf or kw)

    def insert_radiobutton(self, index, cnf={}, **kw):
        self.insert(index, 'radiobutton', cnf or kw)

    def insert_separator(self, index, cnf={}, **kw):
        self.insert(index, 'separator', cnf or kw)

    def delete(self, index1, index2=None):
        if index2 is None:
            index2 = index1

        num_index1, num_index2 = self.index(index1), self.index(index2)
        if (num_index1 is None) or (num_index2 is None):
            num_index1, num_index2 = 0, -1

        for i in range(num_index1, num_index2 + 1):
            if 'command' in self.entryconfig(i):
                c = str(self.entrycget(i, 'command'))
                if c:
                    self.deletecommand(c)
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'delete', index1, index2)

    def entrycget(self, index, option):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'entrycget', index, '-' + option)

    def entryconfigure(self, index, cnf=None, **kw):
        return self._configure(('entryconfigure', index), cnf, kw)

    entryconfig = entryconfigure

    def index(self, index):
        i = self.tk.call(self._w, 'index', index)
        if i == 'none': return None
        return self.tk.getint(i)

    def invoke(self, index):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'invoke', index)

    def post(self, x, y):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'post', x, y)

    def type(self, index):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'type', index)

    def unpost(self):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'unpost')

    def xposition(self, index): # new in Tk 8.5
        return self.tk.getint(self.tk.call(self._w, 'xposition', index))

    def yposition(self, index):
        return self.tk.getint(self.tk.call(
            self._w, 'yposition', index))


class Menubutton(Widget):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        Widget.__init__(self, master, 'menubutton', cnf, kw)


class Message(Widget):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        Widget.__init__(self, master, 'message', cnf, kw)


class Radiobutton(Widget):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        Widget.__init__(self, master, 'radiobutton', cnf, kw)

    def deselect(self):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'deselect')

    def flash(self):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'flash')

    def invoke(self):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'invoke')

    def select(self):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'select')


class Scale(Widget):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        Widget.__init__(self, master, 'scale', cnf, kw)

    def get(self):
        value = self.tk.call(self._w, 'get')
        try:
            return self.tk.getint(value)
        except (ValueError, TypeError, TclError):
            return self.tk.getdouble(value)

    def set(self, value):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'set', value)

    def coords(self, value=None):
        return self._getints(self.tk.call(self._w, 'coords', value))

    def identify(self, x, y):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'identify', x, y)


class Scrollbar(Widget):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        Widget.__init__(self, master, 'scrollbar', cnf, kw)

    def activate(self, index=None):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'activate', index) or None

    def delta(self, deltax, deltay):
        return self.tk.getdouble(
            self.tk.call(self._w, 'delta', deltax, deltay))

    def fraction(self, x, y):
        return self.tk.getdouble(self.tk.call(self._w, 'fraction', x, y))

    def identify(self, x, y):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'identify', x, y)

    def get(self):
        return self._getdoubles(self.tk.call(self._w, 'get'))

    def set(self, first, last):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'set', first, last)


class Text(Widget, XView, YView):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        Widget.__init__(self, master, 'text', cnf, kw)

    def bbox(self, index):
        return self._getints(
                self.tk.call(self._w, 'bbox', index)) or None

    def compare(self, index1, op, index2):
        return self.tk.getboolean(self.tk.call(
            self._w, 'compare', index1, op, index2))

    def count(self, index1, index2, *args): # new in Tk 8.5
        args = ['-%s' % arg for arg in args if not arg.startswith('-')]
        args += [index1, index2]
        res = self.tk.call(self._w, 'count', *args) or None
        if res is not None and len(args) <= 3:
            return (res, )
        else:
            return res

    def debug(self, boolean=None):
        if boolean is None:
            return self.tk.getboolean(self.tk.call(self._w, 'debug'))
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'debug', boolean)

    def delete(self, index1, index2=None):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'delete', index1, index2)

    def dlineinfo(self, index):
        return self._getints(self.tk.call(self._w, 'dlineinfo', index))

    def dump(self, index1, index2=None, command=None, **kw):
        args = []
        func_name = None
        result = None
        if not command:
            result = []
            def append_triple(key, value, index, result=result):
                result.append((key, value, index))
            command = append_triple
        try:
            if not isinstance(command, str):
                func_name = command = self._register(command)
            args += ["-command", command]
            for key in kw:
                if kw[key]: args.append("-" + key)
            args.append(index1)
            if index2:
                args.append(index2)
            self.tk.call(self._w, "dump", *args)
            return result
        finally:
            if func_name:
                self.deletecommand(func_name)

    def edit(self, *args):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'edit', *args)

    def edit_modified(self, arg=None):
        return self.edit("modified", arg)

    def edit_redo(self):
        return self.edit("redo")

    def edit_reset(self):
        return self.edit("reset")

    def edit_separator(self):
        return self.edit("separator")

    def edit_undo(self):
        return self.edit("undo")

    def get(self, index1, index2=None):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'get', index1, index2)
    # (Image commands are new in 8.0)

    def image_cget(self, index, option):
        if option[:1] != "-":
            option = "-" + option
        if option[-1:] == "_":
            option = option[:-1]
        return self.tk.call(self._w, "image", "cget", index, option)

    def image_configure(self, index, cnf=None, **kw):
        return self._configure(('image', 'configure', index), cnf, kw)

    def image_create(self, index, cnf={}, **kw):
        return self.tk.call(
                 self._w, "image", "create", index,
                 *self._options(cnf, kw))

    def image_names(self):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, "image", "names")

    def index(self, index):
        return str(self.tk.call(self._w, 'index', index))

    def insert(self, index, chars, *args):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'insert', index, chars) + args)

    def mark_gravity(self, markName, direction=None):
        return self.tk.call(
            (self._w, 'mark', 'gravity', markName, direction))

    def mark_names(self):
        return self.tk.splitlist(self.tk.call(
            self._w, 'mark', 'names'))

    def mark_set(self, markName, index):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'mark', 'set', markName, index)

    def mark_unset(self, *markNames):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'mark', 'unset') + markNames)

    def mark_next(self, index):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'mark', 'next', index) or None

    def mark_previous(self, index):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'mark', 'previous', index) or None

    def peer_create(self, newPathName, cnf={}, **kw): # new in Tk 8.5
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'peer', 'create', newPathName,
            *self._options(cnf, kw))

    def peer_names(self): # new in Tk 8.5
        return self.tk.splitlist(self.tk.call(self._w, 'peer', 'names'))

    def replace(self, index1, index2, chars, *args): # new in Tk 8.5
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'replace', index1, index2, chars, *args)

    def scan_mark(self, x, y):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'scan', 'mark', x, y)

    def scan_dragto(self, x, y):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'scan', 'dragto', x, y)

    def search(self, pattern, index, stopindex=None,
           forwards=None, backwards=None, exact=None,
           regexp=None, nocase=None, count=None, elide=None):
        args = [self._w, 'search']
        if forwards: args.append('-forwards')
        if backwards: args.append('-backwards')
        if exact: args.append('-exact')
        if regexp: args.append('-regexp')
        if nocase: args.append('-nocase')
        if elide: args.append('-elide')
        if count: args.append('-count'); args.append(count)
        if pattern and pattern[0] == '-': args.append('--')
        args.append(pattern)
        args.append(index)
        if stopindex: args.append(stopindex)
        return str(self.tk.call(tuple(args)))

    def see(self, index):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'see', index)

    def tag_add(self, tagName, index1, *args):
        self.tk.call(
            (self._w, 'tag', 'add', tagName, index1) + args)

    def tag_unbind(self, tagName, sequence, funcid=None):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'tag', 'bind', tagName, sequence, '')
        if funcid:
            self.deletecommand(funcid)

    def tag_bind(self, tagName, sequence, func, add=None):
        return self._bind((self._w, 'tag', 'bind', tagName),
                  sequence, func, add)

    def tag_cget(self, tagName, option):
        if option[:1] != '-':
            option = '-' + option
        if option[-1:] == '_':
            option = option[:-1]
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'tag', 'cget', tagName, option)

    def tag_configure(self, tagName, cnf=None, **kw):
        return self._configure(('tag', 'configure', tagName), cnf, kw)

    tag_config = tag_configure

    def tag_delete(self, *tagNames):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'tag', 'delete') + tagNames)

    def tag_lower(self, tagName, belowThis=None):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'tag', 'lower', tagName, belowThis)

    def tag_names(self, index=None):
        return self.tk.splitlist(
            self.tk.call(self._w, 'tag', 'names', index))

    def tag_nextrange(self, tagName, index1, index2=None):
        return self.tk.splitlist(self.tk.call(
            self._w, 'tag', 'nextrange', tagName, index1, index2))

    def tag_prevrange(self, tagName, index1, index2=None):
        return self.tk.splitlist(self.tk.call(
            self._w, 'tag', 'prevrange', tagName, index1, index2))

    def tag_raise(self, tagName, aboveThis=None):
        self.tk.call(
            self._w, 'tag', 'raise', tagName, aboveThis)

    def tag_ranges(self, tagName):
        return self.tk.splitlist(self.tk.call(
            self._w, 'tag', 'ranges', tagName))

    def tag_remove(self, tagName, index1, index2=None):
        self.tk.call(
            self._w, 'tag', 'remove', tagName, index1, index2)

    def window_cget(self, index, option):
        if option[:1] != '-':
            option = '-' + option
        if option[-1:] == '_':
            option = option[:-1]
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'window', 'cget', index, option)

    def window_configure(self, index, cnf=None, **kw):
        return self._configure(('window', 'configure', index), cnf, kw)

    window_config = window_configure

    def window_create(self, index, cnf={}, **kw):
        self.tk.call(
              (self._w, 'window', 'create', index)
              + self._options(cnf, kw))

    def window_names(self):
        return self.tk.splitlist(
            self.tk.call(self._w, 'window', 'names'))

    def yview_pickplace(self, *what):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'yview', '-pickplace') + what)


class _setit:
    def __init__(self, var, value, callback=None):
        self.__value = value
        self.__var = var
        self.__callback = callback

    def __call__(self, *args):
        self.__var.set(self.__value)
        if self.__callback:
            self.__callback(self.__value, *args)


class OptionMenu(Menubutton):
    def __init__(self, master, variable, value, *values, **kwargs):
        kw = {"borderwidth": 2, "textvariable": variable,
              "indicatoron": 1, "relief": RAISED, "anchor": "c",
              "highlightthickness": 2}
        Widget.__init__(self, master, "menubutton", kw)
        self.widgetName = 'tk_optionMenu'
        menu = self.__menu = Menu(self, name="menu", tearoff=0)
        self.menuname = menu._w
        # 'command' is the only supported keyword
        callback = kwargs.get('command')
        if 'command' in kwargs:
            del kwargs['command']
        if kwargs:
            raise TclError('unknown option -'+kwargs.keys()[0])
        menu.add_command(label=value,
                 command=_setit(variable, value, callback))
        for v in values:
            menu.add_command(label=v,
                     command=_setit(variable, v, callback))
        self["menu"] = menu

    def __getitem__(self, name):
        if name == 'menu':
            return self.__menu
        return Widget.__getitem__(self, name)

    def destroy(self):
        Menubutton.destroy(self)
        self.__menu = None


class Image:
    _last_id = 0

    def __init__(self, imgtype, name=None, cnf={}, master=None, **kw):
        self.name = None
        if not master:
            master = _default_root
            if not master:
                raise RuntimeError('Too early to create image')
        self.tk = getattr(master, 'tk', master)
        if not name:
            Image._last_id += 1
            name = "pyimage%r" % (Image._last_id,) # tk itself would use image<x>
        if kw and cnf: cnf = _cnfmerge((cnf, kw))
        elif kw: cnf = kw
        options = ()
        for k, v in cnf.items():
            if callable(v):
                v = self._register(v)
            options = options + ('-'+k, v)
        self.tk.call(('image', 'create', imgtype, name,) + options)
        self.name = name

    def __str__(self): return self.name

    def __del__(self):
        if self.name:
            try:
                self.tk.call('image', 'delete', self.name)
            except TclError:
                # May happen if the root was destroyed
                pass

    def __setitem__(self, key, value):
        self.tk.call(self.name, 'configure', '-'+key, value)

    def __getitem__(self, key):
        return self.tk.call(self.name, 'configure', '-'+key)

    def configure(self, **kw):
        res = ()
        for k, v in _cnfmerge(kw).items():
            if v is not None:
                if k[-1] == '_': k = k[:-1]
                if callable(v):
                    v = self._register(v)
                res = res + ('-'+k, v)
        self.tk.call((self.name, 'config') + res)

    config = configure

    def height(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('image', 'height', self.name))

    def type(self):
        return self.tk.call('image', 'type', self.name)

    def width(self):
        return self.tk.getint(
            self.tk.call('image', 'width', self.name))


class PhotoImage(Image):
    def __init__(self, name=None, cnf={}, master=None, **kw):
        Image.__init__(self, 'photo', name, cnf, master, **kw)

    def blank(self):
        self.tk.call(self.name, 'blank')

    def cget(self, option):
        return self.tk.call(self.name, 'cget', '-' + option)

    def __getitem__(self, key):
        return self.tk.call(self.name, 'cget', '-' + key)

    def copy(self):
        destImage = PhotoImage(master=self.tk)
        self.tk.call(destImage, 'copy', self.name)
        return destImage

    def zoom(self, x, y=''):
        destImage = PhotoImage(master=self.tk)
        if y=='': y=x
        self.tk.call(destImage, 'copy', self.name, '-zoom',x,y)
        return destImage

    def subsample(self, x, y=''):
        destImage = PhotoImage(master=self.tk)
        if y=='': y=x
        self.tk.call(destImage, 'copy', self.name, '-subsample',x,y)
        return destImage

    def get(self, x, y):
        return self.tk.call(self.name, 'get', x, y)

    def put(self, data, to=None):
        args = (self.name, 'put', data)
        if to:
            if to[0] == '-to':
                to = to[1:]
            args = args + ('-to',) + tuple(to)
        self.tk.call(args)

    def write(self, filename, format=None, from_coords=None):
        args = (self.name, 'write', filename)
        if format:
            args = args + ('-format', format)
        if from_coords:
            args = args + ('-from',) + tuple(from_coords)
        self.tk.call(args)

    def transparency_get(self, x, y):
        return self.tk.getboolean(self.tk.call(
            self.name, 'transparency', 'get', x, y))

    def transparency_set(self, x, y, boolean):
        self.tk.call(self.name, 'transparency', 'set', x, y, boolean)


class BitmapImage(Image):
    def __init__(self, name=None, cnf={}, master=None, **kw):
        Image.__init__(self, 'bitmap', name, cnf, master, **kw)


def image_names():
    return _default_root.tk.splitlist(_default_root.tk.call('image', 'names'))


def image_types():
    return _default_root.tk.splitlist(_default_root.tk.call('image', 'types'))


class Spinbox(Widget, XView):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        Widget.__init__(self, master, 'spinbox', cnf, kw)

    def bbox(self, index):
        return self._getints(self.tk.call(self._w, 'bbox', index)) or None

    def delete(self, first, last=None):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'delete', first, last)

    def get(self):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'get')

    def icursor(self, index):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'icursor', index)

    def identify(self, x, y):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'identify', x, y)

    def index(self, index):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'index', index)

    def insert(self, index, s):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'insert', index, s)

    def invoke(self, element):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'invoke', element)

    def scan(self, *args):
        return self._getints(
            self.tk.call((self._w, 'scan') + args)) or ()

    def scan_mark(self, x):
        return self.scan("mark", x)

    def scan_dragto(self, x):
        return self.scan("dragto", x)

    def selection(self, *args):
        return self._getints(
            self.tk.call((self._w, 'selection') + args)) or ()

    def selection_adjust(self, index):
        return self.selection("adjust", index)

    def selection_clear(self):
        return self.selection("clear")

    def selection_element(self, element=None):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'selection', 'element', element)

    def selection_from(self, index):
        self.selection('from', index)

    def selection_present(self):
        return self.tk.getboolean(
            self.tk.call(self._w, 'selection', 'present'))

    def selection_range(self, start, end):
        self.selection('range', start, end)

    def selection_to(self, index):
        self.selection('to', index)


class LabelFrame(Widget):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        Widget.__init__(self, master, 'labelframe', cnf, kw)


class PanedWindow(Widget):
    def __init__(self, master=None, cnf={}, **kw):
        Widget.__init__(self, master, 'panedwindow', cnf, kw)

    def add(self, child, **kw):
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'add', child) + self._options(kw))

    def remove(self, child):
        self.tk.call(self._w, 'forget', child)

    forget = remove

    def identify(self, x, y):
        return self.tk.call(self._w, 'identify', x, y)

    def proxy(self, *args):
        return self._getints(
            self.tk.call((self._w, 'proxy') + args)) or ()

    def proxy_coord(self):
        return self.proxy("coord")

    def proxy_forget(self):
        return self.proxy("forget")

    def proxy_place(self, x, y):
        return self.proxy("place", x, y)

    def sash(self, *args):
        return self._getints(
            self.tk.call((self._w, 'sash') + args)) or ()

    def sash_coord(self, index):
        return self.sash("coord", index)

    def sash_mark(self, index):
        return self.sash("mark", index)

    def sash_place(self, index, x, y):
        return self.sash("place", index, x, y)

    def panecget(self, child, option):
        return self.tk.call(
            (self._w, 'panecget') + (child, '-'+option))

    def paneconfigure(self, tagOrId, cnf=None, **kw):
        if cnf is None and not kw:
            return self._getconfigure(self._w, 'paneconfigure', tagOrId)
        if isinstance(cnf, str) and not kw:
            return self._getconfigure1(
                self._w, 'paneconfigure', tagOrId, '-'+cnf)
        self.tk.call((self._w, 'paneconfigure', tagOrId) +
                 self._options(cnf, kw))

    paneconfig = paneconfigure

    def panes(self):
        return self.tk.splitlist(self.tk.call(self._w, 'panes'))

def _test():
    root = Tk()
    text = "This is Tcl/Tk version %s" % TclVersion
    text += "\nThis should be a cedilla: \xe7"
    label = Label(root, text=text)
    label.pack()
    test = Button(root, text="Click me!",
              command=lambda root=root: root.test.configure(
                  text="[%s]" % root.test['text']))
    test.pack()
    root.test = test
    quit = Button(root, text="QUIT", command=root.destroy)
    quit.pack()
    root.iconify()
    root.update()
    root.deiconify()
    root.mainloop()


if __name__ == '__main__':
    _test()